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The Marshall Islands Social Security Administration (MISSA), a component unit of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), was established pursuant to RMI Public Law 1990-75 (the Social Security Act of 1990), as amended. The law repealed the Social Security Act of 1987 and established MISSA to administer the Marshall Islands Social Security Retirement Fund. On March 6, 1991, the Nitijela passed Public Law 1991-118 (the Social Security Health Fund Act of 1991), as amended, which directed MISSA to administer the Marshall Islands Social Security Health Fund.

On April 11, 2002, the Nitijela passed Public Law 2002-57 to repeal the Social Security Health Fund Act of 1992 and to transfer the administration of the Health Fund to RMI's Ministry of Health (MOH). However, the formal turn over did not take effect until December 1, 2002, with MISSA's Deputy Administrator for Helath Fund and its entire Medical Referral Team being absorbed by MOH. For accounting purposes, all Health Fund collections starting January 1, 2003, are no longer reflected in MISSA's books. As part of an agreement with MOH, however, MISSA 3.5% collection fee every year on the quarterly collection of Helath Fund contributions. In return, MOH shall pay MISSA 3.5% collection fee every year on the first $4 million of the Health Fund contributions being collected by MISSA estimated at $4.2 million annually.